How to read in Arab-Latin: Allażīna ya`kulụnar-ribā lā yaqụmụna illā kamā yaqụmullażī yatakhabbaṭuhusy-syaiṭānu minal-mass, żālika bi`annahum qālū innamal-bai’u miṡlur-ribā, wa aḥallallāhul-bai’a wa ḥarramar-ribā, fa man jā`ahụ mau’iẓatum mir rabbihī fantahā fa lahụ mā salaf, wa amruhū ilallāh, wa man ‘āda fa ulā`ika aṣ-ḥābun-nār, hum fīhā khālidụn
Translation: Those who consume interest1 cannot stand [on the Day of Resurrection] except as one stands who is being beaten by Satan into insanity. That is because they say, “Trade is [just] like interest.” But Allah has permitted trade and has forbidden interest. So whoever has received an admonition from his Lord and desists may have what is past, and his affair rests with Allah. But whoever returns [to dealing in interest or usury] – those are the companions of the Fire; they will abide eternally therein.
— Saheeh International
Quran 2: 275 Tafsir Al-Muyassar / Ministry of Religion of Saudi Arabia.
People who feed with usury (that is, in addition to the principal capital), they do not rise up in the afterlife from their graves, except as there are people who are possessed by satan due to insanity. That is because they say, “in fact, trade (buying and selling) is the same as the practice of ribawi in the halal way of both because each causes an increase in wealth”. So Allah denied them and explained that He had permitted trade (buying and selling) and prohibited ribawi transactions. Because in trade (buying and selling) there were benefits for individuals and society, and because in the practice of usury, there was an element of exploiting opportunities in tightness, loss of property and destruction. So whoever has come to him the prohibition of Allah regarding usury, then he avoids it, it is for him the advantage that has passed before the stipulation of haram. There is no sin against him over the past usury. And his concern is returned to Allah regarding what will happen to him in the future. If he continues to commit himself to his repentance, then Allah will not lose the reward of those who do good. And whoever returns to the practice of usury and runs it after arriving at the prohibition of Allah regarding it, then he really deserves to be tortured, and the hujjah (ٱلْحُجَّة) proof has been clearly established before him. Therefore, Allah said, “Then they are the inhabitants of hell; they are eternal in it”.
Quran 2: 275 Tafsir al-Madinah al-Munawwarah—Markaz Ta’dzhim al-Qur’an under Prof. Dr. Imad Zuhair Hafidz, professor at the faculty of the Qur’an at the Islamic University of Madinah.
الَّذِينَ يَأْكُلُونَ الرِّبَوٰا۟ (People who eat (take) usury)
The majority of what people did during the Jahiliyah era was when the time limit for paying off debts had expired they said to the owner of the debt: Are you going to pay it back or do you have to add? And if not paid, they will increase the number of assets that become debts (interest) and give a grace period to pay it off. This action is something that is haram according to the agreement of the scholars. In this verse, there is a threat to people who eat this interest (usury), and for other than usury eaters as mentioned in the hadith that the Messenger of Allah said: Allah curses usury eaters, its representatives, its authors, and two witnesses. And the Messenger of Allah said: they are all the alike.
لَا يَقُومُونَ (cannot stand up)
I.e. on the Day of Resurrection.
الَّذِى يَتَخَبَّطُهُ الشَّيْطٰنُ مِنَ الْمَسِّ (People who are possessed by a satan because of (pressure) madness.)
Like someone having a seizure.
The scholars (علماء) say: he will be resurrected in a state of madness as a torment for him and the wrath of the mahsyar expert on him due to his greed and persistence in gathering the world makes him like a madman.
And (الخبط) are irregular movements, like the movements of a seizure.
And (المس) is a mad disease.
Such was their response due to their words: إِنَّمَا الْبَيْعُ مِثْلُ الرِّبَوٰا۟ (actually trade is the same as usury)
I.e. They make trade (buying and selling) activities and usury the same because someone gets as profitable in usury as he makes a profit in trade (buying and selling.)
وَأَحَلَّ اللهُ الْبَيْعَ وَحَرَّمَ الرِّبَوٰا۟ (whereas Allah has made trade (buying and selling) legal and forbidden usury)
I.e. This is the difference between the two, and Allah justifies buying and selling but forbids one of its types, namely trade (buying and selling) which contains usury in it.
And Allah answers their words with this answer is to cut their cunning and break the conversation with them; because the concern of a believer is to obey Allah’s orders in every commandment or prohibition without debate because the evils of usury and the virtues of buying and selling are clear. So how can they say: trade (buying and selling) is like usury.
فَمَن جَآءَهُۥ مَوْعِظَةٌ مِّن رَّبِّهِ (Those who have come to him are prohibited from his Lord.)
And among them is the prohibition against usury that is in this verse.
فَانتَهَىٰ (then keep stopping.)
I.e. then obey and stop taking usury.
فَلَهُۥ مَا سَلَفَ (then for him what he had taken first (before the prohibition came))
not punished for past usury because he did it before the verse that forbids usury was revealed.
وَأَمْرُهُۥٓ إِلَى اللهِ (and matters (up to) to Allah)
I.e. in his forgiveness and elimination of sins due to usury.
وَمَنْ عَادَ (The one who returns (takes usury))
I.e. back to eating usury and dealing muamalah (معاملات) with usury.
Another opinion says: again saying that trade (buying and selling) is like usury.
فَأُو۟لٰٓئِكَ أَصْحٰبُ النَّارِ ۖ هُمْ فِيهَا خٰلِدُونَ (then that people is the dwellers of hell; they are eternal in it)
I.e. the length of time they are in it.